Elucidating the role of androgen receptor in breast cancer Adult member videochat
Prostate cancer is the second most prevalent cancer in males in the United States.Standard therapy relies on removing, or blocking the actions of, androgens.In its basal state, AR is inactive and is bound to heatshock proteins and other cellular chaperones.Upon activation by androgen hormones, it undergoes a series of events, including dissociation from the heatshock proteins, dimerization, and nuclear translocation.It then directly binds to specific hormone response elements in the promoter regions of target genes, resulting in upregulation of these genes .In epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), AR is expressed more often than estrogen receptor (ER) and has been reported to be detectable in up to 90% of cases using immunohistochemistry (IHC) .Androgen receptors are frequently expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
This review seeks to identify specific molecular events that may be linked directly to the progression to androgen-refractory cancer.
The AR: ER ratio had an independent effect on risk for failure above ER % staining alone.
AR: ER ratio is also an independent predictor of disease-free survival (HR = 4.04, 95% CI: 1.68, 9.69; p = 0.002) and disease specific survival (HR = 2.75, 95% CI: 1.11, 6.86; p = 0.03).
Both enzalutamide and bicalutamide inhibited 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-mediated proliferation of breast cancer lines ; however, enzalutamide uniquely inhibited estradiol (E2)-mediated proliferation of ER /AR breast cancer cells.
In MCF7 xenografts (ER /AR ) enzalutamide inhibited E2-driven tumor growth as effectively as tamoxifen by decreasing proliferation.